Russia

Forward Russia !

Russia is a transcontinental country located in Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. Russia’s capital and largest city is Moscow; other major urban areas include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod, Kazan, Chelyabinsk, and Samara.

Russia is the largest country in the world; its total area is 17,075,200 square kilometers (6,592,800 sq. mi). This makes it larger than the continents of Oceania, Europe, and Antarctica. Russia has a wide natural resource base, including major deposits of timber, petroleum, natural gas, coal, ores, and other mineral resources.

The enormous size of Russia and the remoteness of many areas from the sea result in the dominance of the humid continental climate, which is prevalent in all parts of the country except for the tundra and the extreme southwest.

Russia is the most populous nation in Europe and the ninth-most populous nation in the world.

Russian cuisine widely uses fish, caviar, poultry, mushrooms, berries, and honey. Crops of rye, wheat, barley, and millet provide the ingredients for various breads, pancakes and cereals, as well as for kvass, beer and vodka drinks. Black bread is rather popular in Russia, compared to the rest of the world. Flavourful soups and stews include shchi, borsch, ukha, solyanka and okroshka. Smetana (a heavy sour cream) is often added to soups and salads.

Railway transport in Russia is mostly under the control of the state-run Russian Railways monopoly. The company accounts for over 3.6% of Russia’s GDP and handles 39% of the total freight traffic (including pipelines) and more than 42% of passenger traffic.

The traditional Ukrainian diet includes chicken, pork, beef, fish and mushrooms. Ukrainians also tend to eat a lot of potatoes, grains, fresh and pickled vegetables.

In 1999–2001, Ukraine served as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council. Historically, Soviet Ukraine joined the United Nations in 1945 as one of the original members following a Western compromise with the Soviet Union, which had asked for seats for all 15 of its union republics. Ukraine also has made a substantial contribution to UN peacekeeping operations since 1992.

System of Education

Education in Russia is largely based on the Bologna principles, education in Russia structures degrees slightly differently than other countries in Europe. Upon completion of secondary education, students can pursue either a Bachelor’s or Specialist’s degree, both qualifying students to later pursue a master’s degree. Bachelor’s degrees are given after four years of full-time study at a university. Specialist degrees are awarded after a minimum of five years of study and are more focused on practical education in a student’s chosen field. Both qualifications require students to successfully defend a thesis and pass examinations. This degree is conferred in all fields except medicine, where the first stage of education lasts for six years. Master’s degrees are awarded after two years of study with one year dedicated to research which includes practice and preparation for a thesis defense. Students who possess a master’s degree are eligible to pursue their PhD studies. Postgraduate education is divided into two parts in Russia, and two degrees are required to confirm students’ status as a scientist. Postgraduate studies can only be pursued at a university or scientific institute. After successful completion of the first part of their postgraduate education, students areawarded a Candidate of Sciences degree.The final Doctoral degree is obtained after an additional 2-4 years of study in postgraduate education. This certification then leads to a Doctorate degree. As there is a 10-year gap between both degrees, the final Doctorate qualifications are often awarded to Candidates of Science after they’re well into their careers in academia.